Friday, 6 July 2018

Learning Russian July 2018 - Aïshah Frémaux-Soormally


Aïshah Frémaux-Soormally

Learning Russian






Common Cyrillic letters

Upright
Italic/Cursive
Name
Sound (in IPA)
А а
А а
A
/a/
Б б
Б б
Be
/b/
В в
В в
Ve
/v/
Г г
Г г
Ge
/ɡ/
Д д
Д д
De
/d/
Е е
Е е
Ye
/je/, /ʲe/
Ж ж
Ж ж
Zhe
/ʒ/
З з
З з
Ze
/z/
И и
И и
I
/i/, /ʲi/
Й й
Й й
/j/
К к
К к
Ka
/k/
Л л
Л л
El
/l/
М м
М м
Em
/m/
Н н
Н н
En
/n/
О о
О о
O
/o/
П п
П п
Pe
/p/
Р р
Р р
Er
/r/
С с
С с
Es
/s/
Т т
Т т
Te
/t/
У у
У у
U
/u/
Ф ф
Ф ф
Ef
/f/
Х х
Х х
Kha
/x/
Ц ц
Ц ц
Tse
/ts/ (t͡s)
Ч ч
Ч ч
Che
// (t͡ʃ)
Ш ш
Ш ш
Sha
/ʃ/
Щ щ
Щ щ
/ʃtʃ/, /ɕː/, /ʃt/[b]
Ь ь
Ь ь
Soft sign[c] or
Small yer[d]
/ʲ/[e]
Ю ю
Ю ю
Yu
/ju/, /ʲu/
Я я
Я я
Ya
/ja/, /ʲa/
 
·  Russian: и краткое, i kratkoye; Bulgarian: и кратко, i kratko. Both mean "Short i".

·  ·  See the notes for each language for details

·  ·  Russian: мягкий знак, myagkiy znak

·  ·  Bulgarian: ер малък, er malâk

 ·  The soft sign ь usually does not represent a sound, but modifies the sound of the preceding letter, indicating palatalization ("softening"), also separates the consonant and the following vowel. Sometimes it does not have phonetic meaning, just orthographic; e.g. Russian туш, tush [tuʂ] 'flourish after a toast'; тушь, tushʹ [tuʂ] 'India ink'. In some languages, a hard sign ъ or apostrophe just separates the consonant and the following vowel (бя [bʲa], бья [bʲja], бъя = б’я [bja]).




Russian

Main article: Russian alphabet

There are 33 letters in the Russian Alphabet:

10 vowels, 21 consonants, and 2 signs (ь, ъ).

The Russian alphabet
  • Yo (Ё ё) /jo/
  • The Hard Sign¹ (Ъ ъ) indicates no palatalization²
  • Yery (Ы ы) indicates [ɨ] (an allophone of /i/)
  • E (Э э) /e/
  • Ж and Ш indicate sounds that are retroflex

Notes:
  1. In the pre-reform Russian orthography, in Old Russian and in Old Church Slavonic the letter is called yer. Historically, the "hard sign" takes the place of a now-absent vowel, which is still preserved as a distinct vowel in Bulgarian (which represents it with ъ) and Slovene (which is written in the Latin alphabet and writes it as e), but only in some places in the word.
  2. When an iotated vowel (vowel whose sound begins with [j]) follows a consonant, the consonant is palatalized. The Hard Sign indicates that this does not happen, and the [j] sound will appear only in front of the vowel. The Soft Sign indicates that the consonant should be palatalized in addition to a [j] preceding the vowel. The Soft Sign also indicates that a consonant before another consonant or at the end of a word is palatalized. Examples: та ([ta]); тя ([tʲa]); тья ([tʲja]); тъя ([tja]); т (/t/); ть ([tʲ]).

 

More About Russian Alphabet - Cyril and Methodius called their alphabet Glagolitsa, or the Glagolitic alphabet. The name comes from the Old Slavic word glagolŭ, which means ‘sound’. The Glagolitic alphabet was used for Slavonic manuscripts for a relatively short period of time (no more than a century) before the development of the Cyrillic. The Cyrillic alphabet was derived from Glagolitic by Cyril’s pupils and named after him. Cyrillic letters are different from the Glagolitic ones and have lots in common with the Greek letters.

Until the 17th century, the only written language in Russia was Church Slavonic. Civil Russian language started appearing in writing during the reign of Peter the Great (1672-1725). The dialect of Moscow was used as the basis for written Russian. The new civil alphabet was introduced by Peter the Great himself in order to write civil books, books on science and other texts not related to the church.

Before 1918, there were four extra letters in use: Іі (replaced by Ии), Ѳѳ (Фита "Fita", replaced by Фф), Ѣѣ (Ять "Yat", replaced by Ее), and Ѵѵ (ижица "Izhitsa", replaced by Ии); these were eliminated by reforms of Russian orthography.
Four letters were eliminated from the alphabet in a 1918 language reform. Since 1918 the alphabet remains unchanged.
 




  

 



 


Published on 8 Dec 2015

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x3yF9i9jdE8


 Песня "Глобус" (сл. Михаил Львовский, муз. Михаил Светлов) - исполняют Дарья Антоненко и Анастасия Череватенко на конкурсном концерте участников XV фестиваля авторской песни и песенной поэзии среди учащейся молодёжи г. Сумы 5 декабря 2015 года. Аккомпаниатор - Сергей Савченко (гитара). Видеооператор - Николай Рожкин.


Текст песни "Глобус":



Я не знаю, где встретиться

Нам придëтся с тобой.

Глобус крутится, вертится,
Словно шар голубой,
И мелькают города и страны,
Параллели и меридианы,
Но нигде таких пунктиров нету,
По которым нам бродить по свету.

Знаю, есть неизвестная
Широта из широт,
Где нас дружба чудесная
Непременно сведëт.
И узнаем мы тогда, что смело
Каждый брался за большое дело,
 И места, в которых мы бывали,
Люди в картах мира отмечали.

Кто бывал в экспедиции,
Тот поëт этот гимн,
И его по традиции
Мы считаем своим,
Потому что мы народ бродячий,
Потому что нам нельзя иначе,
Потому что нам нельзя без песен.
Потому что мир без песен тесен.

Потому что мы народ бродячий,
Потому что нам нельзя иначе,
Потому что нам нельзя без песен.
Потому что мир без песен тесен.

  Будем слышать друг друга мы

За вершинами гор,
За февральскими вьюгами,
Через снежный простор
И пускай мы сотни верст бродили,
Пусть меж нами километры были,
Но за тысячами верст разлуки
Песни дружбы различали звуки.

Кто бывал в экспедиции,
Тот поëт этот гимн,
И его по традиции
Мы считаем своим,
Потому что мы народ бродячий,
  



http://www.russianforeveryone.com/RufeA/Lessons/Introduction/Alphabet/Alphabet.htm

 Russian language self study guide for beginners



Developed by Dr. Julia Rochtchina.

 


Introduction. Russian letters and sound system


Sounds, handwriting, keyboard


Reading syllables. Translating This is..., Here is...


Reading syllables. Conjunctions и and а


Learn Russian hushing and velar sounds. Stress and vowel reduction (а, о)
 

Check what you have learned from Lessons 1-3 with this 10 minute quiz.


Letters ц,й,ы,и


Learn Russian 7-letter spelling rule


Learn Russian Hard and Soft сonsonants. Vowel reduction (я, е)
 

Check what you have learned from Lessons 4-6 with this 15 minute quiz.


Letters ь and ъ. Pronunciation of я, ё, ю, е. Letters к, г, х


Unpaired hard and soft consonants. The soft consonant й
 

Check what you have learned from Lessons 7-8 with this 15 minute quiz.


Voiced and Voiceless Consonants. Devoicing of Final Consonants. Consonant Clusters


Pronunciation of г, ч, тся and ться


Learn how to greet people and say goodbye in Russian


Introducing Yourself in Russian
 

Check what you have learned from Lessons 7-8 with this 10 minute quiz.



Russian grammar and vocabulary. Unit 1


Gender of Nouns: Hard Stem. Personal pronouns он (he), она (she), оно (it). "The" and "a"."To be" in the Present tense


Gender of Nouns: Hard and Soft Stems. Exceptions


Nominative Plural of Nouns


Personal Pronouns я, ты, он, она, оно, мы, вы, они. Ты vs. Вы


Professions


Learn Russian Names: Last Name, First Name and Patronimic
 

Check what you have learned from Grammar Lessons 1-4 and Phrasebook Topics 3-4 with this 20 minute quiz.
 

Check what you have learned from Russian Letters and Sound System section and Grammar Lessons 1-4



Russian grammar and vocabulary. Unit 2


Asking Whose in Russian? The Possessive Pronouns его, её, их, наш, ваш


Asking What and Who? Nominative case. Asking Where? Prepositional case


Family


At the Airport
 

Check what you have learned from Grammar Lessons 5-6 and Phrasebook Topics 5-6 with this 10 minute quiz.


What is an Adjective? Nominative Case of Adjectives


Demonstrative Pronouns этот and тот. Indeclinable это vs. Demonstrative pronouns этот (эта, это, эти)


Clothes


Learn numbers 1-20 in Russian
 

Check what you have learned from Grammar Lessons 7-8 and Phrasebook Topic 7 with this 10 minute quiz.
 

Check what you have learned from Grammar Lessons 5-8 and Phrasebook Topics 5-8.



Russian grammar and vocabulary. Unit 3


Location. Prepositions в (во) and на. В доме vs. дома


What is a Verb. Verb Infinitive. The Past Tense


Learn numbers 21-199 in Russian


Learn numbers 200-1000 in Russian
 

Check what you have learned from Grammar Lessons 9-10 and Phrasebook Topics 9-10 with this 10 minute quiz.


Present Tense of Verbs. Verb Conjugation. Conjugation of verbs жить, писать. Stress in Verbs


About what vs about who. The preposition о (об). Prepositional Case of Personal Pronouns. Verbs говорить, рассказывать, спрашивать
 

Check what you have learned from Grammar Lessons 11-12 with this 10 minute quiz.
 

Check what you have learned from Grammar Lessons 9-12 and Phrasebook Topics 9-10.



Russian grammar and vocabulary. Unit 4


Questions 'Какой' and 'Как?': Adjectives vs Adverbs.Formation of Adverbs. Adverbs of Place and Time


Talking about languages: русский язык vs по-русски. Language skills vs study or knowledge of language


Languages


Cardinal and Ordinal Numerals
 

Check what you have learned from Grammar Lessons 13-14 and Phrasebook Topic 11 with this 10 minute quiz.


Denoting a Direct Object. Accusative Case of Nouns (Formation of Singular Forms). Transitive and Intransitive verbs


Accusative Case of Adjectives, Possessive and Demonstrative Pronouns. The verb хотеть - to want


Studying and Teaching: изучать, учиться, заниматься, преподавать. Verbs with -ся


Subjects at School


About Myself
 

Check what you have learned from Grammar Lessons 15-17 and Phrasebook Topics 13-14 with this 10 minute quiz.
 

Check what you have learned from Grammar Lessons 13-17 and Phrasebook Topics 11-14.



Russian grammar and vocabulary. Unit 5


Irregular Plurals of Nouns


The -ова- Stem Verbs. The verb любить - to love


Countries and Nationalities
 

Check what you have learned from Grammar Lessons 18-19 and Phrasebook Topics 15 with this 15 minute quiz.


The Prepositional Case of Adjectives. Uses and Forms


The Prepositional Case of Possessive and Demonstrative Pronouns. Uses. Singular and Plural Forms


About My Friends
 

Check what you have learned from Grammar Lessons 20-21 and Phrasebook Topics 16 with this 15 minute quiz.
 

Check what you have learned from Grammar Lessons 18-21 and Phrasebook Topics 15-16.



Russian grammar and vocabulary. Unit 6


Expressing Possession: Genitive Case of Nouns (introduction). Uses and Singular forms. Question Чей? - Whose?


Genitive Case of Adjectives, Possessive and Demonstrative Pronouns


Indicating Having And Not Having Something. Genitive Case of Personal Pronouns


Food
 

Check what you have learned from Grammar Lessons 22-24 and Phrasebook Topics 17 with this 15 minute quiz.


Verbs of Going (introduction). Going by foot vs. going by vehicle. Saying "Let's go!". Asking Where: Где? vs. Куда?


Denoting an Indirect Object. Dative Case of Nouns. Uses and forms. Dative Case of Personal Pronouns


Dative Case of Adjectives, Possessive and Demonstrative Pronouns
 

Check what you have learned from Grammar Lessons 25-27 and Phrasebook Topic 17 with this 15 minute quiz.
 

Check what you have learned from Grammar Lessons 22-27 and Phrasebook Topic 17.



Russian grammar and vocabulary. Unit 7


Verbs that take the Dative Case. The preposition по


Expressing Availability and Necessity. Short-form adjectives занят vs. свободен; должен


Verbal Aspect (introduction). Meaning of Aspect. Aspect and Tense. Future Tense: Imperfective and Perfective Future. Aspectual Pairs


The Instrumental Case of Nouns. The Instrumental Case of Personal Pronouns. Uses and forms.


The Instrumental Case of Adjectives, Possessive and Demonstrative Pronouns. Summary of endings
 

Check what you have learned from Grammar Lessons 28-32 with this 15 minute quiz.
 

Check what you have learned from Grammar Lessons 28-32.



Russian grammar and vocabulary. Unit 8


Verbs of Going: Unidirectional and Multidirectional (идти vs ходить). Present Tense forms of идти, ходить, ехать, ездить). Past Tense of Going Verbs. Introduction


Uses of the Dative Case: Subjectless Expressions with Dative. Expressing Necessity, possibility and permission. Expressing Age


Expressing Likes and Dislikes: verbs нравиться and любить


Shopping for Gifts



Summary Tables


Russian Nominative, Prepositional, Accusative, Genitive, Dative, Instrumental cases.


Personal Pronouns; Interrogative Pronoun


Basic uses of Nominative, Prepositional, Accusative, Genitive, Dative, Instrumental cases.


Verb Endings: First and Second conjugation. Regular Forms.


First conjugation verbs with stems ending in a consonant:



Russian Language Games


Russian Hangman Games Master your vocabulary: practice spelling Russian words


Master your Russian vocabulary


Practice recognizing the words form your Russian vocabulary list


Master the Russian grammar rules you have learned

 

 




https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vIi05c5lbbk&t=7s


Published on 12 Apr 2016
Lesson1 Russian alphabet or The Cyrillic script/ memory technique implemented 
National script of following countries:
 Belarus
 Bosnia
 and Herzegovina
 Bulgaria
 Kazakhstan
 Kyrgyzstan
 Mongolia
 Montenegro
 Russia
 Serbia
 Tajikistan
 Ukraine
 Instagram: rforrussian Channel supporter: https://www.myelixir.store
  

N.B.  From Wikipedia and other sources

Numerous Cyrillic alphabets are based on the Cyrillic script. The early Cyrillic alphabet was developed in the First Bulgarian Empire during the 9th century AD at the Preslav Literary School by the disciples of the Byzantine theologians Cyril and Methodius. It is the basis of alphabets used in various languages, past and present, in parts of Southeastern Europe and Northern Eurasia, especially those of Slavic origin, and non-Slavic languages influenced by Russian. As of 2011, around 252 million people in Eurasia use it as the official alphabet for their national languages. About half of them are in Russia. Cyrillic is one of the most-used writing systems in the world.


Old Church Slavonic

 Glagolitic alphabet, the first alphabet to be used for Slavonic manuscripts.



The Glagolitic and Cyrillic alphabets are the oldest known Slavic alphabets, and were created by the two brothers and their students, to translate the Bible and other texts into the Slavic languages.[25] The early Glagolitic alphabet was used in Great Moravia between 863 (the arrival of Cyril and Methodius) and 885 (the expulsion of their students) for government and religious documents and books, and at the Great Moravian Academy (Veľkomoravské učilište) founded by Cyril, where followers of Cyril and Methodius were educated, by Methodius himself among others. The alphabet has been traditionally attributed to Cyril. That attribution has been confirmed explicitly by the papal letter Industriae tuae (880) approving the use of Old Church Slavonic, which says that the alphabet was "invented by Constantine the Philosopher". The term invention need not exclude the possibility of the brothers having made use of earlier letters, but implies only that before that time the Slavic languages had no distinct script of their own.

EARLY CYRILLIC ALPHABET

  The early Cyrillic alphabet was developed in the First Bulgarian Empire[26] and later finalized and spread by disciples Kliment and Naum in the Ohrid and Preslav schools of Tsar Boris I of Bulgaria[27] as a simplification of the Glagolitic alphabet which more closely resembled the Greek alphabet. It was developed by the disciples of Saints Cyril and Methodius at the Preslav Literary School at the end of the 9th century.



After the death of Cyril, Clement of Ohrid accompanied Methodius from Rome to Pannonia and Great Moravia. After the death of Methodius in 885, Clement headed the struggle against the German clergy in Great Moravia along with Gorazd. After spending some time in jail, he was expelled from Great Moravia, and in 885 or 886 reached the borders of the Bulgarian Empire together with Naum of Preslav, Angelarius, and possibly Gorazd (according to other sources, Gorazd was already dead by that time). The four of them were afterwards sent to the Bulgarian capital of Pliska, where they were commissioned by Tsar Boris I of Bulgaria to instruct the future clergy of the state in the Slavonic language.
After the adoption of Christianity in 865, religious ceremonies in Bulgaria were conducted in Greek by clergy sent from the Byzantine Empire. Fearing growing Byzantine influence and weakening of the state, Boris viewed the adoption of the Old Slavonic language as a way to preserve the political independence and stability of Bulgaria, so he established two literary schools (academies), in Pliska and Ohrid, where theology was to be taught in the Slavonic language. While Naum of Preslav stayed in Pliska working on the foundation of the Pliska Literary School, Clement was commissioned by Boris I to organise the teaching of theology to future clergymen in Old Church Slavonic at the Ohrid Literary School. For seven years (886-893) Clement taught some 3,500 students in the Slavonic language and the Glagolitic alphabet.

Pope Adrian II, who formally authorized the use of the new Slavic liturgy.





Russian is an Eastern Slavonic language closely related to Ukrainian and Belorussian with about 277 million speakers in Russia and 30 other countries.
 


Saint Cyril's real name was Constantine.  His brother's (Methodius) real name was Michael, both born in Greece.


The Cyrillic alphabet was introduced into Russia (Kievan Rus' ) at the time of its conversion to Christianity (988 AD). The alphabet, the Cyrillic script is named in honour of the Byzantine scholar and monk, Cyril (827-869 AD), who, together with his brother Methodius (826-885 AD), created the first Slavic writing system in the second half of the ninth century in order to translate the Bible and other Christian texts into the Slavic languages.

 

Cyril's mastery of theology and command of both Arabic and Hebrew made him eligible for his first state mission. He was sent to the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mutawakkil to discuss the principle of the Holy Trinity with the Arab theologians, and to improve relations between the Caliphate and the Empire







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